802.11ax

Meet the 6th Generation of Wi-Fi

The Wi-Fi 6, is designed to improve overall spectral efficiency, especially in dense usage scenarios.

The Purpose of 802.11ax

In 2019, there is estimated 14.96 billion devices wolrdwide connected via WLAN, and it is projected that in 2021, the number will grow to 22.2 billion.* Thus, future Wi-Fi networks need to be capable of managing increased data traffic and more Wi-Fi signals. IEEE 802.11ax (Wi-Fi 6), a revolutionary high-efficiency Wi-Fi standard, rises to the challenge. It holds great promise to provide faster and more stable network experience for the next decade.*Data from report of Statista

Blistering Speed

Up to 9.6 Gbps Speed
802.11ax 1024-QAM  4× Longer Symbol  160 MHz Channel 9.6 Gbps
802.11ac 256-QAM 6.9 Gbps

1024-QAM and increased OFDM symbol time combine to offer astonishing Wi-Fi Speed and an extended range compared to previous generations of Wi-Fi. Feel free to enjoy smooth 4K streaming and immersive VR gameplay in every room or even your back yard with a faster, more robust 802.11ax connection.

Improved Efficiency

4x Larger Capacity
802.11ax 8x8 UL/DL MU-MIMO  OFDMA  BSS Color 4X
802.11ac MU-MIMO

This revolutionary OFDMA is introduced into 11ax for optimized frequency allocation, cooperating with revised MU-MIMO for both up-link and down-link and BSS color for smarter transmission; boosting your router’s ability to serve more clients, even while under overlapped signals.

PHY Number of data
subcarriers
Coding rate Bits/symbol Time per OFDM
symbol (0.4μs GI)
  1SS 4SS 8SS
802.11ac 234 (80 MHz) × 5/6 × log2(256) ÷ 3.6 µs = 433.3 Mbps 1.74 Gbps NA
802.11ax 1960 (160 MHz) × 5/6 × log2(1024) ÷ 13.6 µs = 1.2 Gbps 4.8 Gbps 9.6 Gbps
 
Blistering Speed
 
Improved Efficiency

Higher Level Modulation
1024-QAM

25% faster than 256-QAM

With 1024-QAM, each symbol carries 10 bits rather than 8 bits, improving raw speeds by 25% compared to 802.11ac 256-QAM. Fully enjoy bandwidth extensive activities like immersive VR through a wireless headset.

bits/symbol
bits/symbol
speed improvement
Frequency f
Frequency f
11ac: 256 Subcarriers in 3.6 μs (0.4 μs GI)
11ax: 1024 Subcarriers in 13.6 μs (0.8 μs GI)
  802.11ac 802.11ax
Number of Data Subcarriers 234 980
Symbol Duration(μs) 3.6 (3.2 symbol + 0.4 GI) 13.6 (12.8 symbol + 0.8 GI)
Valid Data Subcarriers Rate 65 72.05882
Improvement   1.108597
* One Symbol, 80 MHz Channel

4× Longer OFDM Symbol

1.1× More Speed and Greater Stability

OFDM divides the high data rate transmission into multiple low data rate sub-carriers, and low data rate means more stability and wider coverage. In 802.11ax, a 4× longer OFDM symbol and a longer GI were applied to generate 4× sub-carriers. Coverage grows, as does the proportion of data sub-carriers, helping AX Wi-Fi to be 11% faster.

160MHz Channel Width on a Single Stream

Broader the Road, Double the Load

With channel width reaching up to 160 MHz, 802.11ax can deliver wireless speeds beyond what you can imagine.

160MHz
80MHz

OFDMA

Fully Utilized Bandwidth Eradicates Latency

Wireless efficiency drops as the density of client devices increases and large number of short packets are transmitted, causing more contention and collision. 802.11ax uses OFDMA technology for more efficient access. OFDMA divides the spectrum into Resource Units and allocates them to multiple different users, if necessary, allowing multiple users with varying bandwidth needs to be served simultaneously. Like a delivery truck carrying packages for different receivers on a single trip—which is clearly more efficient—in both up-link and down-link directions.

Figure below shows the working scenario of only one antenna.
  • Waiting
    Client 2
    Waiting
    Data Transmitted

    802.11ac | without OFDMA

  • Client 1
    Client 2
    Client 3
    Data Transmitted

    802.11ax | OFDMA

8 × 8 MU-MIMO

Downlink, Uplink, All Aboard MU-MIMO

While OFDMA is introduced for making one wave support multiple clients, MU-MIMO is dedicated to achieve the same goal of improving efficiency by taking advantage of space to create more spatial streams. 802.11ax multiplies the performance of 802.11ac by generating up to 8 streams on single direction and directing them to multiple spatially diverse clients, simultaneously. By adding a new trigger control frame, 802.11ax now supports up-link multi-user MIMO transmissions.

BSS Color

Minimizing Wi-Fi Conflicts with Your Neighbors

Interference from your neighbors' wireless networks can cause issues with your wireless signal. BSS (Base Service Station) Color, as an identifier, can mark each frame and tell Routers/APs/Clients which frames are coming from neighboring networks and ignore them, as long as the existing frames are below a threshold of weakness, avoiding unnecessary slowdown and minimize Wi-Fi interference from the neighborhood to the most extent.

Signals interfered overlapped
Client
Client
Without BSS Color
Less signal interference
Client
Client
BSS Color Working...
Transmitting
Sleep State
Sleep State
Waiting
Waiting
Transmitting

Target Wake Time

Arrange Client Connections and Reduce Power Consumption

Target Wake Time (TWT) allows devices to negotiate when and how often they will wake up to send or receive data, increasing device sleep time and substantially improving battery life for mobile and IoT devices.